Local Example – Marlborough, MA: Shared Parking
City of Marlborough Zoning By-Law, §200-25 Off-Street Parking.
B. Application of Parking Requirements.
(3) [amended 4-23-90 by Ord. No. 89/90-3111] Common Parking Areas and Mixed Uses. Parking required for two (2) or more buildings or uses may be provided in combined parking facilities where such facilities will continue to be available for the several buildings or uses and provided that the total number of spaces is not less than the sum of the spaces required for each use individually, except that said number of spaces may be reduced by up to one-half (1/2) such sum if it can be demonstrated that the hours or days of peak parking need for the uses are so different that a lower total will provide adequately for all uses served by the facility. The following requirements shall be met:
- Evidence of reduced parking needs shall be documented and based on accepted planning and engineering practice satisfactory to the City Planner and Engineer.
- If a lower total is approved, no change in any use shall thereafter be permitted without further evidence that the parking will remain adequate in the future, and if said evidence is not satisfactory, then additional parking shall be provided before a change in use is authorized.
- Evidence of continued availability of common or shared parking areas shall be provided satisfactory to the City Solicitor and shall be documented and filed with the Site Plan.
- The determination of how a combined or multiuse facility shall be broken down into its constituent components shall be made by the Planning Department.
- If any reduction in the total number of parking spaces is allowed as a result of this subsection, then one hundred fifty (150) square feet of open space (per parking space reduced) shall be provided in addition to that required by lot coverage provisions of this Chapter.
Local Example – Waltham, MA: Shared Parking
The General Ordinances of the City of Waltham, Massachusetts, v.9, updated 8-2006, Part III. Zoning Code
ARTICLE V. Parking Requirements
Sec.5.2. Off-street parking requirements.
c. Notwithstanding any other parking requirements set forth in this chapter for individual land uses, when any land or building is used for two or more distinguishable purposes (i e , joint or mixed use development), the minimum total number of parking spaces required to serve the combination of all uses shall be determined in the following manner
Multiply the minimum parking requirement for each individual use (as set forth in the applicable section of this chapter for each use) by the appropriate percentage (as set forth below in the Parking Credit Schedule Chart) for each of the five designated time periods and then add the resulting sums from each vertical column. The column total having the highest total value is the minimum shared parking space requirement for that combination of land uses.
Parking Credit Schedule Chart
Midnight to 7:00 a.m. (percent)
7:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (percent)
5:00 p.m. to Midnight (percent)
6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. (percent)
6:00 p.m. to Midnight (percent)
|Restaurant associated with hotel||10||50||60||50||60|
|Entertainment/recreation (theaters, bowling allies, cocktail lounges and similar)||10||40||100||80||100|
Local Example – Stoneham, MA: Flexible Requirements and Shared Parking
Town of Stoneham Zoning Bylaws, 6.0 GENERAL PROVISIONS AFFECTING ALL DISTRICTS
6.3 Off-Street Parking Requirements:
6.3.8 SPECIAL PERMITS FOR PARKING
18.104.22.168 Special permit for a change in parking space requirements: the number of off street parking spaces required by section 6.3.3, of this by law for a use or uses in the Central Business District and in the Commercial I District for Banquet Facilities, Function Halls and Dinner Theaters may be changed by Special permit in accordance with the following provisions:
(1) Special permit criteria: The Planning Board, by special permit, may allow remote parking lots, or shared parking lots which it deems reasonable, based on the following criteria, and other applicable provisions presented in this subsection:
- The capacity, location and current level of use of existing parking facilities, both public and private;
- The efficient and maximum use in terms of parking needs and services provided;
- The relief of traffic and parking congestion;
- The safety of pedestrians;
- The provision of reasonable access either by walking distance or shuttle vehicle arrangements;
- The maintenance of the character of the area.
(2) The following are allowed by Special Permit:
- The substitution of parking spaces within municipal parking lots in lieu of or in reduction to the parking requirements of this section, provided they are located within 1600 feet of the building which is intended to be served.
- A reduction in parking space requirements: The number of off-street parking spaces required by Section 6.3.3 of this bylaw for a use or uses in the non-residential districts may be reduced by special permit in accordance with the following provisions:
(1) Shared parking: Shared private parking facilities for different buildings or uses may be allowed by Special Permit, subject to the following provisions:
- Up to fifty percent (50%) of the parking spaces serving a building may be used jointly for other uses not normally open, used or operated during similar hours. The applicant must show that the peak parking demand and principal operating hours for each use are suitable for a common parking facility.
- A written agreement defining the joint use acceptable to the Planning Board of the common parking facility shall be executed by all parties concerned and approved by the Planning Board as part of the special permit process. Such agreement shall be recorded at the Middlesex Registry of Deeds.
- Any subsequent change in land uses for which the shared parking proposal was approved, and which results in the need for additional parking spaces, shall require a new special permit application under this subsection.
(2) Remote parking: Remote (satellite) parking areas may be authorized by the Planning Board by special permit, subject to the following provisions:
- The satellite parking spaces will be used solely by the employees and, where practicable, clientele of the commercial use;
- The off-site parking spaces shall be located to adequately serve the proposed use and shall be within six hundred (600) feet of the building served for clientele of the commercial use. Off-site parking for employees of the business may be located within a distance of one thousand two hundred (1,200) feet, unless shuttle vehicle arrangements are provided as a condition of the special permit. The parking distance shall be measured by the shortest route of pedestrian access, entrance to entrance.
(3) Pedestrian access: Any proposals submitted, which, in the opinion of the Planning Board, provide direct and vital pedestrian access to other abutting commercial properties and serve to improve pedestrian accessibility may reduce the number of parking spaces required by fifteen percent (15%). Pedestrian access shall be provided enough improved pathways, stairway access or other physical improvements, and such access shall be clearly marked.