MAPC’s first phase of neighborhood change research included a literature review of academic and non-academic reports released in the past decade that outline anti-displacement polices and strategies grounded in successful case studies. This information was organized into a matrix that catalogues the research by geographic scale (neighborhood, city/town, or regional), by recommended methods, and by recommended policies and strategies employed in case studies. The matrix appears below; follow the links for more information.
For more information about the research, specific recommendations, and case studies, click on a given title and refer to the annotated bibliography of this literature review.
|Dealing with Neighborhood Change: A Primer on Gentrification and Policy Choices. The Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy and PolicyLink (April 2001).||This report explores recent gentrification dynamics in Atlanta, the San Francisco Bay Area, Cleveland, and Washington, D.C.||The authors recommend strategies to address high metropolitan housing prices, short supply of housing compared to job growth, and the need for housing near jobs.|
|Development without Displacement Task Force Background Paper. The Chicago Rehab Network, The Nathalie P. Voorhees Center for Neighborhood and Community Improvement (1995).||In this paper, researchers outline approaches, policies, strategies, and programs addressing the issue of development without displacement at the federal and city levels, with a focus on Chicago.||Researchers explore municipal programs and strategies to prevent displacement and preserve affordable housing.|
|Equitable Development Tools to Mitigate Residential Displacement Due to Gentrification: Case Studies of Three Atlanta Neighborhoods. Kaycee Elizabeth Mertz (2008).||This study uses Policy Link’s Equitable Development Toolkit (2008) as a model for evaluating the City of Atlanta’s efforts to reduce residential displacement due to gentrification.||The author’s strategies range from enacting inclusionary zoning to establishing community land trusts.|
|In the Face of Gentrification: Case Studies of Local Efforts to Mitigate Displacement. Levy, Comey, and Padilla for the Urban Institute (2006).||This report outlines anti-displacement strategies pertaining to housing and asset building in St. Petersburg, FL, Sacramento, CA, Atlanta, GA, Los Angeles, CA, Seattle, WA, and Chicago, IL.||The author analyzes tools for the production and financing of affordable housing and tools to build assets for low- and moderate-income residents.|
|Managing Neighborhood Change: A Framework for Sustainable and Equitable Revitalization. Mallach, Alan (2008).||This report outlines strategies for managing neighborhood change to achieve sustainable and equitable revitalization.||Strategies to increase neighborhood stability, preserve and expand affordable housing, and prevent involuntary displacement are recommended.|
|Maintaining Diversity In America’s Transit-Rich Neighborhoods: Tools for Equitable Neighborhood Change. Pollack, Bluestone, and Billingham (2010).||The study team identified indicators of neighborhood change and applied them to new transit stations to explore gentrification and displacement.||The authors analyze municipal planning tools, such as community benefits agreements and transit corridor planning; and housing market tools, including Housing Trust Funds and TOD Tax Increment Financing Districts.|
|Mixed-Income Transit Oriented Development Action Guide. Reconnecting America and the Center for Transit-Oriented Development.||The goal of this guide is to help practitioners identify the most appropriate and effective planning tools for achieving MITOD in transit station areas.||Recommended tools include transfer taxes, limited equity co-cops, land banking, and incentive-based zoning.|
|Neighborhood Renewal. D.C. Heath and Company. Clay, Philip (1979).||The author provides an overview of the characteristics of key actors in and emerging issues pertaining to gentrification and upgrading neighborhoods.||Recommendations include strategies to preserve existing housing stock for low- and moderate-income families include municipal subsidies for renovation, delay of tax assessment increases, and sanctions and incentives to realtors and bankers.|
|Preserving Affordability and Access in Livable Communities: Subsidized housing opportunities near transit and the 50+ population. AARP Public Policy Institute. Harrell, R., Brooks, A. & Nedwick, T. (2009).||This report identifies the policy and program interventions that influence the trajectory of community development, transportation planning, and investment. Research focuses on subsidized affordable housing properties serving older persons.
|Recommendations include national and state strategies to preserve affordable housing, integrate transit and land use planning in funding criteria for affordable housing and transportation investments, and approaches to senior populations.|
|Preventing Displacement Policy Fact Sheet. Great Communities Toolkit (2007).||This fact sheet identifies four types of displacement—direct and indirect residential displacement and direct and indirect commercial displacement—and discusses mitigation measures.
|Tools for preventing displacement include rent control, condo conversion ordinance, real estate transfer tax, jobs/housing linkage fees, and tax increment financing from redevelopment funds.|
|Promoting Neighborhood Diversity: Benefits, barriers and strategies. The Urban Institute. Turner, M. A. & Rawlings, L. (2009).||This report makes recommendations pertaining to federal enforcement to monitor real estate practices at the local level, public education, affordable housing development incentives, and reinvestment.||Recommendations include enforcement to combat persistent discrimination, affordable housing development to open up exclusive communities, and reinvestment to equalize the quality of minority neighborhoods.|
|Discourses and Experiences of Social Six in Gentrifying Neighborhoods: A Montréal Case Study. Canadian Journal of Urban Research. Rose, Damaris (2006).
|This study features interviews with new infill condo owners in gentrifying neighborhoods of Montreal, with a focus on how they feel about diversity and affordable housing in their communities.||The primary recommendation is to pursue low- and moderate-cost infill affordable housing development at the municipal level.|