Alternative mode access (especially proximity of transit, but also pedestrian and bicycle facilities)
Expected demographics of residential developments (age, income, other auto-ownership factors)
Parking studies providing data to support requests to reduce or increase parking
Implementation of programs to reduce the need for parking spaces, such as parking cash out, un-bundled parking, shared parking, priority parking for carpools, or car sharing (see parking and transportation demand management)
Allow or require developers to pay into a fund to be used for building public parking rather than providing parking spaces (see fees-in-lieu).
Establish maximum allowances for how much parking may be built by use and/or by neighborhood (see parking maximums).
Allow or require developers to pave only a portion of the required parking initially, while retaining land sufficient to meet the rest of the requirement as a landscaped reserve, which may be used as a park, playground, garden, etc. until the parking is needed, if ever (see landscaped parking reserves).
Encourage shared parking between uses with parking demands peaking at different times of the day, week, or year (see shared parking).
Design strategies to mitigate negative consequences of parking
Provision of bike parking and amenities such as lockers and showers
Car sharing programs (e.g. Zipcar)
Shuttle services from nearby transit stations or satellite parking lots
Ride-matching services that help people identify potential carpool or vanpool partners
Guaranteed ride home services that allow employees who don’t bring a car to work to get a free ride home (usually via taxi) if they need to stay late, or if they need to leave unexpectedly in the middle of the day
Charge for on-street parking in downtown or other busy areas, or increase the cost of parking to reflect the demand for parking (see charging for parking).
Charge for student parking at high schools, especially if there is a fee for riding the bus.